Skip to main content
2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Systematic Reviews

Systematic Review Question

What is the relationship between sodium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease?

Conclusion Statement

The DGAC concurs with the IOM review, which concluded that “although the reviewed evidence on associations between sodium intake and direct health outcomes has methodological flaws and limitations, when considered collectively, it indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and risk of CVD. This evidence is consistent with existing evidence on blood pressure as a surrogate indicator of CVD risk.”

IOM Grade: Grade not determined, outside the statement of task

2015 DGAC Grade: Moderate

The DGAC concurs with the IOM conclusion that “evidence from studies on direct health outcomes is inconsistent and insufficient to conclude that lowering sodium intakes below 2,300mg per day either increases or decreases risk of CVD outcomes (including stroke and CVD mortality) or all-cause mortality in the general US population.”

IOM Grade: Grade not determined, outside the statement of task

2015 DGAC Grade: Grade Not Assignable

The DGAC concurs with the NHLBI review, which concluded that “a reduction in sodium intake by approximately 1,000mg per day reduces CVD events by about 30%” and that “higher dietary sodium intake is associated with a greater risk for fatal and nonfatal stroke and CVD.”

NHLBI Strength of Evidence: Low

2015 DGAC Grade: Limited

The DGAC concurs with the NHLBI conclusion that “evidence is not sufficient to determine theassociation between sodium intake and the development of heart failure.”

NHLBI Strength of Evidence: Not assigned due to insufficient evidence

2015 DGAC Grade: Grade Not Assignable