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Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Systematic Review


The purpose of the P/B-24 Project, completed in 2018, was to conduct a series of systematic reviews on diet and health for women who are pregnant and for infants and toddlers from birth to 24 months of age. This project was led jointly by USDA and HHS. USDA’s Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review (NESR) team conducted systematic reviews for the Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months (P/B-24) Project. A Federal Expert Group (FEG), a broadly representative group of Federal researchers and program leaders, also provided input throughout the P/B-24 Project.

It is important to note that the purpose of P/B-24 Project was to review the evidence on a select number of questions, not to establish or recommend dietary guidance.

A detailed description of the P/B-24 Project has been published and is available:

Stoody EE, Spahn J, Casavale K. The Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project: a series of systematic reviews on diet and health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109(7):685S–97S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy372.

View MethodologyView Acknowledgements

Technical Expert Collaboratives (TECs) 

To conduct the P/B-24 systematic reviews, NESR staff worked with four Technical Expert Collaboratives (TECs), which are described in more detail at the links below:

Systematic Reviews

Pregnant mom with young girl
Pregnancy Technical Expert Collaborative
Mom Breast feeding and baby bottles
Infant Milk-Feeding Practices Technical Expert Collaborative
Dad feeding baby with spoon
Complementary Feeding Technical Expert Collaborative
Asian baby being spoon-fed
Flavor Exposure and Feeding Practices Technical Expert Collaborative

Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review Team

Project Leads

Eve E. Stoody, PhD
Joanne M. Spahn, MS, RDN, FADA
Kellie O. Casavale, PhD, RD


Emily H. Callahan, MS 
Carol Dreibelbis, MPH
Laural Kelly English, PhD
Darcy Gungor, MS
Concetta C. LaPergola, MS
Kirsten Johns, MPH
Brittany L. Kingshipp, PhD
Perrine Nadaud, PhD
Julie E. Obbagy, PhD, RD
Tricia L. Psota, PhD, RD
Ramkripa Raghavan, DrPH, MPH, MSc
Myra J. Shapiro, PhD
Joanne M. Spahn, MS, RD
Maureen K. Spill, PhD


Nancy Terry, MLS (from NIH, HHS)
Yat Ping Wong, MLS, MPH

Federal Expert Group

U.S. Department of Agriculture


Food and Nutrition Service
Anne Bartholomew, MS, RD
Katey Halasz, MPH, RD, LD
Donna Johnson-Bailey, MPH, RDN
Usha Kalro, MS, RDN
Colette Rihane, MS, RD
Christina Riley, MS, RD
Kelley S. Scanlon, PhD, RD
Joanne M. Spahn, MS, RDN, FADA
Eve E. Stoody, PhD

National Institute for Food and Agriculture
Deirdra Chester, PhD, RDN
Dionne Toombs, PhD

Agricultural Research Service
Pam Starke-Reed, PhD

Food Safety and Inspection Service
Janice Lopez-Munoz, BS, MSIH

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)


Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Kellie O. Casavale, PhD, RD
Richard (Rick) Olson, MD, MPH

Administration for Children and Families
Marco Beltran, DrPH

Office on Women’s Health
Ursuline Singleton, MPH, RD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Namanjeet Ahluwalia, PhD, DSc 
Heather Hamner, PhD, MS, MPH 
Ashleigh Murriel, PhD 
Cria Perrine, PhD

Food and Drug Administration
Carolyn Chung, PhD
Tova Jacobovits, MS, RDN
William Jones, PhD

Health Resources and Services Administration
Michele Lawler, MS, RD

National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Janet de Jesus, MS, RD 
Rosalind King, PhD
Daniel J. Raiten, PhD

U.S. Agency for International Development

Jeniece Alvey, MPH, IBCLC 
Lindy Fenlason, MD, MPH, PNS
Melanie Thurber, MPH