More favorable outcomes related to body weight or risk of obesity were observed when there was increased adherence to a diet that emphasized fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Some studies also reported more favorable body weight status over time with regular intake of fish and legumes, moderate intake of dairy products (particularly low-fat dairy) and alcohol, and low intake of meat (including red and processed meat), sugar-sweetened foods and drinks, refined grains, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium.
Conclusion Statements: Dietary Patterns and Body Weight or Risk of Obesity
There is moderate evidence that in adults increased adherence to dietary patterns scoring high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, unsaturated oils, and fish; low in total meat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sugar sweetened foods and drinks and sodium; and moderate in dairy products and alcohol is associated with more favorable outcomes related to body weight or risk of obesity, with some reports of variation based on gender, race, or body weight status.
(Grade: II - Moderate) (Index Analysis)
There is moderate evidence that adherence to a dietary pattern that emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and whole grains is associated with modest benefits in preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss in adults.
(Grade: II - Moderate) (Other Methods)
Limited or Insufficient Evidence:
Limited and inconsistent evidence from epidemiological studies examining dietary patterns derived using factor or cluster analysis in adults found that consumption of a dietary pattern characterized by vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and reduced-fat dairy products tends to be associated with more favorable body weight status over time than consumption of a dietary pattern characterized by red meat, processed meats, sugar-sweetened foods and drinks, and refined grains.
(Grade: III - Limited) (Factor or Cluster Analysis)
There are a number of methodological differences among the studies examining the relationship between dietary patterns derived using reduced rank regression and body weight status. The disparate nature of these studies made it difficult to compare results, and therefore, no conclusions were drawn.
(Grade: IV - Not Assignable) (Reduced Rank Regression)