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Systematic Review Question

What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed and risk of certain types of cancer?

Conclusion Statement

Dietary patterns: Breast cancer

  • Moderate evidence indicates that dietary patterns rich in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, and lower in animal-source foods and refined carbohydrates, are associated with reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The data regarding these dietary patterns and premenopausal breast cancer risk point in the same direction, but the evidence is limited as fewer studies include premenopausal breast cancer. (Grade: Moderate - Postmenopausal breast cancer risk, Limited – Premenopausal breast cancer risk)

Dietary patterns: Colorectal cancer

  • Moderate evidence indicates that dietary patterns higher in vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, lean meats and seafood, and low-fat dairy; and low in red and processed meats, saturated fat and sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets relative to other dietary patterns are associated with lower risk of colon and rectal cancer. Moderate evidence also indicates that dietary patterns that are higher in red and processed meats, French fries, potatoes, and sources of sugars (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets and dessert foods) are associated with a greater colon and rectal cancer risk. (Grade: Moderate)

Dietary patterns: Lung cancer

  • Limited evidence suggests that dietary patterns containing more frequent servings of vegetables, fruits, seafood, grains and cereals, legumes and lean vs. higher fat meats and lower fat or non-fat dairy products may be associated with lower risk of lung cancer, primarily among former smokers and current smokers. (Grade: Limited)

Dietary patterns: Prostate cancer

  • Limited evidence suggests no relationship between dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer. (Grade: Limited)